Research-based writing includes quotations from sources. When including quotations, you should not only cite the source correctly, but also integrate the quotation seamlessly into your own sentences.
When you use a quotation in your writing…
  • Introduce the quotation.
  • Cite the quotation.
  • Follow the quotation with your own explanation.
  • Read back the sentence. It should make sense and read fluently.


The family remained hopeful that Mr. McCourt would “get a job soon” (30), so they instilled a sense of security in the children.
The quotation (“get a job soon”) flows seamlessly within the writer’s own sentence.
​Conventions for Using Quotations
​Convention When to use it ​Example
. . . ​ ​Use the . . . (called an elipsis) when you are removing one or more words from the quotation. Original quote: "​Firefighters are cautiously optimistic that the fire is not going to continue to spread if weather conditions continue to hold" (Ford).
New quote: "Firefighters are cautiously optimistic . . . if weather conditions continue to hold" (Ford).
​[sic] ​Use this abbreviation to indicate that there is a grammatical error in the quote itself; you know it's there, but you aren't correcting it because it's a direct quotation. Original quote: "Some 2,800 people are effected" (Ford).
"effected" should be "affected"
New quote: "Some 2,800 people are effected [sic]" (Ford).
​/ ​Use the slash / to indicate a line break when quoting a play or poem. ​"He hath an uncle here in Messina will be very much / glad of it" (I.i.23-24).